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[新闻档案]印度干旱

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更多 发布于:2016-04-26 14:24
4月26日讯   当地时间2016年4月24日,印度阿默达巴德,Vastrapur湖河床干涸龟裂,死鱼随处可见。印度高温天气导致大面积缺水,受影响人数超过3亿,占全国总人口的四分之一。数千农民因缺水自杀,成千上万的家畜死亡,农作物枯萎,地下水位下降持续下降,河流湖泊干涸龟裂,景象触目惊心。
印度高温天气导致大面积缺水,受影响人数超过3亿,占全国总人口的四分之一。
阿默达巴德当地居民在仅剩的一点湖水中摸鱼。数千农民因缺水自杀,成千上万的家畜死亡,农作物枯萎,地下水位下降持续下降,河流湖泊干涸龟裂,景象触目惊心。
河流湖泊干涸龟裂,景象触目惊心。
印度约8亿农业人口,许多人把黄金视为装饰品及财富保值手段,农作物丰收季带来的滚滚财源使得印度成为能够比肩中国的全球最大的金银市场。因此,印度黄金销售也通常在每年公历11月的排灯节出现井喷,届时,农户会购买黄金用作宗教贡品,及婚礼上新娘的精美装饰品。
但今年黄金销量明显偏少。因厄尔尼诺现象带来了6年来最干旱的季风季节,雨水不足导致农户产量下降,收入减少。
拥有2英亩甘蔗田的35岁孟买蔗农Chavan说,“我本来想给我女儿买点金饰耳环,但今年我不抱希望了。降雨不足,收成不佳。怎么还敢想黄金呢?”
Chavan不是个例。占全国60%黄金消费的印度农村地区需求如此疲弱,以致于在排灯节前就开始囤货的黄金经销商做出了数十年来最大的打折销售。这只能使国际金价前景更趋恶化。印度西部古吉拉特邦的农户种植棉花和小麦,据《印度时报》报道,上月该邦黄金进口同比下降87%。
玛莎百货(瑞士)的贸易与实物销售主任Afshin Nabavi在日内瓦接受电话采访说:“印度的需求非常非常疲弱。季风季对印度黄金需求十分重要,低于均值的雨量对金需产生了直接影响。”经销商们提供了自1998年以来最大的打折销售。
印度未能充分预计今年厄尔尼诺现象带来的影响,此前预估降雨量会略低于50年均值,实际数值则整整低了14%。季风季降雨是印度2.63亿农户主要的灌溉来源。由于基础设施不完善,印度农业在很大程度上仍然处于“靠天吃饭”的状态。
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发布于:2016-04-26 14:29
A look at India's recurrent drought problem
Over a quarter of India's population is affected by the ongoing drought conditions prevailing in large parts
 of the country. DW examines the reasons behind the problem and the steps needed to alleviate it.
 Indien Dürre - ausgetrockneter Fluss
The ongoing spell of drought and severe water shortages are affecting more than 300 million people in the country, the Indian government said recently, turning the spotlight on a problem that has frequently plagued the South Asian nation in recent years.
There are various ways in which a drought can be defined. A meteorological drought is when there is a
shortfall of rains. A hydrological drought occurs when deficient rainfall leads to plummeting water reserves. And agricultural drought is declared when the lack of water affects crops and harvests.
India relies heavily on seasonal monsoon rains for rainfall and water. And as a result of poor monsoons over the past two years as well as weak rainfall in the early months of this year, reservoirs, ponds and wells have dried up in many parts of the vast nation, causing acute water shortages.
The situation has forced authorities in some Indian states to ration drinking water and use trains to transport fresh water to certain drought-ravaged areas.
 Indian villagers fill water from a well that releases water through a pipeline once every ten days in Umrala village in Botad district, some 150 km from Ahmedabad in India's western Gujarat state, on April 1, 2016

The situation has forced authorities in some Indian states to ration drinking water
Water woes
Inadequate rainfall, however, is not the only reason behind India's severe water woes, with experts pointing to other contributing factors such as rapid population growth, depletion of groundwater resources, poor water management and chronic lack of investment in storage systems.
"Although India is historically drought-prone, over the past decades, faster population growth, greater urbanization, and consequent large-scale deforestation and leveling of water bodies like large ponds and lakes for legal or illegal constructions have added to the water problems," said N. Sathiya Moorthy, director of the Chennai Chapter of India-based Observer Research Foundation.
This view is shared by Michael Kugelman, South Asia expert at the Washington-based Woodrow Wilson Center, who noted that increasing amounts of water have been required to quench the thirst of a population of over a billion people, and to sustain a growing economy, thus naturally leading to severe shortages.
Furthermore, he told DW, water is also used wastefully in India, with sprinklers often running non-stop, water trucks driving around often leaking water out of their containers, and so on.
The analyst also blamed government policies such as subsidies for particularly water-intensive crops as well as heavy irrigation methods for having contributed to the problem.
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Modi's government reveals pro-poor, farmer-friendly budget for India
New Delhi has promised to spend billions to boost infrastructure, help poor farmers and increase rural employment. The budget comes as years of economic growth have done little to improve conditions in rural India. (29.02.2016)
Climate change: Skeptics and believers
Climate change to 'severely impact' growth in South Asia
"These policies exacerbate the damage wrought by climate change, which clearly plays a role not only in the droughts, but also in how such high temperatures have been registered across India this year much earlier than is typically the case," Kugelman said.
Indeed, soaring temperatures in the southern and eastern parts of the country over the past several weeks have so far claimed over 150 lives.
Farmer suicides
Poor rainfall and drought conditions also have an adverse economic and social impact, particularly on India's rural communities, which account for around 60 percent of the nation's population.
"The impact of drought is felt directly by farmers, due to poor crop yields or crop failures, which results in reduced farm incomes, and this has wider transmission effects throughout rural communities due to lower consumer spending by agricultural households," said Rajiv Biswas, Asia-Pacific Chief Economist at the analytics firm IHS.
Since a large share of Indian rural households is still living in poverty, they are extremely vulnerable to loss of income as they have limited savings to draw upon.
Many farmers in India are also deeply indebted and need good harvests to allow them to recoup financial losses and repay loans. And as drought ruins their harvests, many desperate farmers kill themselves, noted Kugelman. "Drought is a major factor in the thousands of farmer suicides afflicting India over the last few decades."
Furthermore, the problems have accelerated migration of rural communities to urban centers, putting more pressure on cities already stretched in terms of resources.
 Soaring temperatures in the southern and eastern parts of the country over the past several weeks have claimed over 150 lives
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发布于:2016-04-26 14:33

India drought: Boy drowns in Maharashtra well
22 April 2016
 From the section India
Manoj SatputeImage copyrightManoj Satpute
Image caption
Beed is one of the worst affected districts
An 11-year-old boy has slipped into a deep well and drowned while fetching water in a drought-affected area in India's western state of Maharashtra.
TV pictures showed villagers pulling Sachin Kengar out of the well in Beed district on Thursday and trying
 unsuccessfully to revive him.
Earlier this week an 11-year-old girl died of heatstroke while collecting water from a village pump in Beed.
Some 330 million people are affected by the drought in India.
The government says nearly 256 districts across India, home to nearly a quarter of the population, have been hit.
Beed is one of the worst affected districts: half of its 1,403 villages are facing an acute water crisis.
Sachin Kengar
Image caption
Sachin Kengar had gone to the well to fetch water
Local journalist Manoj Satpute told the BBC that Kengar was trying to fetch water from a 60ft (18m) deep well in his
 village when he slipped and fell.
"We went to the spot and saw the boy's cycle and vessels [for carrying water] were still there. It appears he died of
drowning after he fell into the well," police constable Dinakar Puri was quoted as saying by the NDTV news
channel.
On Sunday, Yogita Desai, 11, died of heatstroke and dehydration after spending close to four hours in 42C temperatures gathering water from a village pump in Beed.
The pump was only 500m from her house, but a typical wait for water stretches into hours.
India is heavily dependent on monsoon rains, which have been poor for two years in a row.
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发布于:2016-04-26 14:41
据英国《每日邮报》4月21日报道,近期,印度多地遭遇严重干旱,其中卡纳塔克邦尤为严重,水井水位线巨幅下降,村民饮水极其困难,妇女被迫赤脚攀爬下到50英尺(约15米)的深井中取水
久视伤血,久卧伤气,久坐伤肉,久立伤骨,久行伤筋
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发布于:2016-04-26 14:53
一名身材单薄、身着印度传统服饰沙丽的妇女,仅凭一根悬挂在井口金属横梁上的简易绳索,赤脚、徒手下降到15米的深井中取水。
久视伤血,久卧伤气,久坐伤肉,久立伤骨,久行伤筋
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发布于:2016-04-26 16:01
印度最近的高温干旱确实是异常猛烈,每天都有数十个站点最高温达到44度及以上,前天有个站点最高更是达到了48.5度
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发布于:2016-04-26 16:33
好扣怕   好扣怕
1条评分, 金钱 -1
  • beta
    金钱 -1
    请勿灌水
    2016-04-26 18:21
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发布于:2016-04-26 18:14
云南也遭殃,气象干旱严重
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发布于:2016-04-26 18:55
beta锛氂《茸罱母呶赂珊等肥凳且斐C土遥刻於加惺稣镜阕罡呶麓锏44度及以上,前天有个站点最高更是达到了48.5度鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
泰国缅甸也受到波及,泰国有几个站连续半个多月40+比较少见
有兀自生死的血色纱 仍轻柔,晕染着,你的发。 惯看每缕人间的烟花, 湮灭成,盈满双眼的沙。 流年中的石桥渐风化, 你目送,那痴缠,与无瑕。 黯淡或是天真的目光, 千万遍,勾勒你的伤疤。 你曾痴狂,你曾挣扎, 都不过是,故纸堆中的一划。 一寸流光,一寸黄粱, 千年描画。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 一段纷繁遥远的韶华, 凝铸成,指下血,心口砂。 那些来去匆匆的脸庞, 从未曾,知晓你的过往。 当这岁月,试图麻木你脸颊。 一声叹惋,一声唾骂, 无需作答。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 千年后你见证多少生死离别, 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 黄泉外仍有明月, 曾洒落在你眸间。 而如今无垠血色千万次开谢, 昏沉雾霭中有萤火杳杳明灭。 你将自己囚禁于人世边沿, 只为祭奠当年的无悔无怨。 这里是所有疲惫遗憾的终点, 每个旅人的悲伤都与你重叠, 你看过无数双死灰般的眼, 才将那些爱恨埋入这黄泉永夜。 有容颜,铭刻于你的骨血, 此生已无从忘却。
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发布于:2016-04-27 12:03
MUMBAI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - The worst drought in decades across several states in India is forcing
 tens of thousands of people to migrate from rural areas in search of water, food and jobs, increasing the risk that
 they may be trafficked or exploited, activists said.

About 330 million people, almost a quarter of the country's population, are now affected by drought, the government estimates. Destitute women, children and older family members left behind in the villages are most at risk of
 exploitation.

"People in the rural areas have always been vulnerable because they want better jobs, better lives," said Mangala
Daithankar at non-profit Social Action for Association and Development in Pune, in Maharashtra state.

"The drought has aggravated the situation because they are so desperate now. They have absolutely nothing," said Daithankar, who has worked in the state's drought-hit Marathwada region for about two decades.

Maharashtra is one of the worst affected states, with successive years of poor rainfall ravaging crops, killing livestock, drying up reservoirs and forcing farmers into indebtedness that has led to thousands of suicides.

In the state's Jalna district, scores of villages house only destitute women and children left in the care of older
 relatives who keep an eye on their homes and parched fields.

"There's no water, so there are no jobs to be had on the fields and no food to feed their families," said Vishwanath
Todkar at non profofit Paryay in Osmanabad district, which is helping build water management systems in some
villages.

"The women and children are particularly vulnerable, as there is no one looking out for them," he told the Thomson
 Reuters Foundation.

MASSIVE DISTRESS

Men and their wives have moved to cities including Mumbai and Pune in search of jobs on construction sites and as day labourers, sleeping under flyovers and on pavements. Some have been reduced to begging on the streets,
 activists say.

Others, with their families, have been lured to work for little money in harsh conditions in one of the hundreds of brick kilns in the state. Many single women and widows have been trafficked into prostitution in the cities.

"Disasters are the ground zero for trafficking," said Dhananjay Tingal, executive director at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (Save the Childhood Movement), which says it has rescued more than 85,000 children from modern slavery in India.

"Everyone's so focussed on just getting by, that they are easy prey," he said.

A police spokesman in Mumbai said police had not found cases of drought-related human trafficking but were aware of the rise in migration and remained vigilant.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has pledged a nationwide drive to conserve water, but activists and economists have slammed the government's lack of "compassion" on the issue.

In an open letter to Modi, 170 activists, academics and economists said the drought had resulted in "massive distress movement of populations, causing broken childhoods, interrupted education, life in camps, city pavements or
crowded shanties".

In Maharashtra, among the wealthiest states in the country, the drought has not stemmed the flow of migrants from
 neighbouring Karnataka and elsewhere, seeking work. The drought has hit an estimated 10 million people in
Karnataka.

In some places the drought is spurring the migration of entire families, including the elderly and children who would
 traditionally have been left behind, activists say.

"The crisis is by far the worst the region has seen in many years. There is no fodder, no water and no agriculture in
the region as of now," said Amlan Aditya Biswas, regional commissioner in Gulbarga in North Karnataka.

"We are concerned about the spurt in migration," he said.

The state government is working on building farm ponds and desilting tanks in the hope that the monsoon rains in
 June will fill them and provide some relief to small farmers, he said.

For now, those left behind in the villages are tending to their fields, digging wells and laying down drip irrigation
systems as they await the monsoon rains - which are expected to be above average this year, easing some fears.

"It all depends now on the rains," said Daithankar. "People will come back to the villages if the rains are good. Otherwise there is nothing for them to come back to."
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