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[定期翻译][Science]Future Earth 未来地球

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更多 发布于:2016-01-26 14:46
The new year ushers in important international agendas secured at the end of 2015: the Paris climate agreement to limit global warming to a 1.5° to 2°C increase and adoption of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Both actions reflect the world’s recognition that development in all nations hinges on a stable and resilient Earth system. This is a political paradigm shift, fortified by three decades of remarkable advancements in Earth system science. The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), which ended in December 2015, can take considerable credit for coordinating and catalyzing much of this fundamental research. The recently launched Future Earth research program builds on this legacy and is the right response to the new scientific challenges.

   我们在12月末的一次重要的国际会议中迎来了新的一年:巴黎气候峰会。这次会议旨在达成目标将全球变暖控制在1.5°C2°C,以及修订联合国可持续发展目标。这些行动表明各国都承认发展是需要扎根在一个适宜居住且稳定的地球环境之上的。这是近三十年来的地球科学发展带来的标志性政治进步。国际地球生物圈计划(IGBP),这个项目在15年十二月结束,它澄清了大量的关于地球科学的基础研究。
  Formed in 1986, IGBP became the first major international program to conceptualize Earth as a whole system. Its objective was “to describe and understand the interactive physical, chemical and biological processes that regulate the total Earth system...and the manner in which they are fluenced by human activities.” Its visionary research agenda attracted leading scientists from advanced and developing countries, and brought together thousands of researchers through interlinked research initiatives such as the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project, all of
which continue to generate key scientific insights. In December 2015, GCP published its 10th annual carbon budget during the Paris climate summit, indicating a decline of 0.6% in the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions in 2015, potentially the first decrease during a time of world economic growth. Earlier last year, PAGES researchers concluded that sea levels could stabilize at around 6 meters higher than preindustrial levels if global temperature were to increase 1° to 2°C.
成立于1986年的IGBP是第一个将地球作为整体系统的组织,他们旨在理解地球上的物理、化学、生物等等之间的相互作用,以及这些过程所受到的人类影响。这些有远见的研究吸引了来自发达以及发展中国家的科学家们。他们也通过一些国际研究来聚集数千研究人员,这些研究项目类似于国际碳项目(GCP),过去地球项目(PAGES)。这些组织都研究出了一些关键的科学洞见。在201512月,在巴黎会议召开期间GCP发布了他们的第十期年度碳汇收支,表明了2015年人类CO2排放量增长速率下降了0.6%。这是人类经济增长过程中第一次下降。去年早些时候,PAGES发现如果气温上升1-2°,那么相较于前工业化时代,海平面将会上升6米。
  The integrated systems perspective is what made IGBP so important, particularly its focus on the dynamics and feedbacks between the climate system and the biosphere.  From its freewheeling intellectual spirit, unbounded by political
mandates, emerged profound scientific insights, such as the concept of the “Great Acceleration” in human activity since the 1950s, and quantification of this impact on Earth. IGBP will forever be associated with the concept of the Anthropocene—the
scientific conclusion that Earth has entered a new geological epoch dominated by human interference—which was first discussed at an IGBP meeting in 2000, was published in the IGBP newsletter that same year, and was central to IGBP’s irst synthesis report, Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. IGBP was a foundation for the nowestablished field of Earth system science and influenced the research trajectory of many institutes.

对于系统的综合视角使得IGBP如此重要,尤其是因为他们关注与气候与生物圈之间的演化和反馈,因为他们不收政治影响从而在研究方面更加****,因此他们有很多重要的科学结论比方说大加速这个形成于上世纪50年代的概念,并且得出了这一过程对于地球的影响。IGBP总是和Anthropocene 的概念连在一起,这一概念是指地球进入了一个新的地质年代,一个由人类主导的地质年代。这一概念最早是在2000IGBP的会议上被提出,并且在同一年被发表在了IGBP的报纸上。并且成为了IGBP第一份综合报告:一个在压力下的地球的核心。IGBP是目前新生地球科学领域的基金会,它也影响了众多科研组织的研究轨迹。
This new knowledge, and the sheer scale of responsibility that the Anthropocene represents, necessitate an evolution to global sustainability science. Future Earth is the next logical step and brings together natural and social sciences to work toward more integrative global change science and solutions-oriented research that engages governments, civil society, research funders, and the private sector. The new initiative has the support of an influential coalition of international bodies, including the International Council for Science, the United Nations, and the major national research funders. Future Earth international offices have now been established in Canada, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United States, and national and regional networks and offices are growing rapidly. But Future Earth’s success will lie in its ability to stay true to IGBP’s legacy. As IGBP projects transfer to Future Earth, the new program must continue to attract the best scientists and institutions. Earth system resilience and stabilization are necessarily rising to the top of political and scientific research agendas. With humanity at a critical juncture, Future Earth has the potential to become the largest, most ambitious international research program ever undertaken.
此一新知识,以及"人类世"所反映需负责任的宽宏的规模,使全球可持续性科学有演进的需要未来地球是可行的下一步并且同时带来了更加综合的关于自然和社会科学的地球改变科学以及需要****、社会、研究人员,各行各业来寻找解决方案。新的法案已经支持一些有影响的国际组织包括国际科学委员会,联合国以及主要的研究机构。未来地球国际办公室已经在加拿大、法国、日本、瑞典以及美国成立,它的分支机构以及各地办公室正在迅速增长。未来地球的成功一定源于他对于IGBP的政策的坚持。当IGBP项目转变为未来地球,这一项目一定会吸引更多的研究者和研究机构。地球系统的重新平静和稳定已经成为了科学界和政治界的首要议题。在这一人类危急关头,未来地球有能力成为有史以来最大最有能力的研究项目。
原文位于附件中319.full.pdf
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星夜の极光星夜の极光 spidyl2009spidyl...
有人问我,你在哪里,你去哪儿了。我想,这么文艺的问题,我还是闭嘴吧。
spidyl2009
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发布于:2016-01-26 23:25
LZ辛苦了。。。文字相当艰深

Anthropocene: 人类世

末段首句:
This new knowledge, and the sheer scale of responsibility that the Anthropocene represents, necessitate an evolution to global sustainability science:
此一新知识,以及"人类世"所反映需负责任的宽宏的规模,使全球可持续性科学有演进的需要。

请检查一下英文部分有些字母丢了,例如(in)fluence,(F)irst
浪子心聲 作詞:許冠傑/黎彼得 作曲:許冠傑 難分真與假 人面多險詐 幾許有共享榮華 簷畔水滴不分差 無知井裡蛙 徒望添聲價 空得意目光如麻 誰料金屋變敗瓦 命裡有時終須有 命裡無時莫強求 雷聲風雨打 何用多驚怕 心公正白璧無瑕 行善積德最樂也 人比海裡沙 毋用多牽掛 君可見漫天落霞 名利息間似霧化
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发布于:2016-01-27 08:01
spidyl2009锛歀Z辛苦了。。。文字相当艰深

Anthropocene: 人类世

末段首句:
This new knowledge, and the sheer scale of responsibility that the Anthropocene...
鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
可能是PDF转WORD时候出了点问题
有人问我,你在哪里,你去哪儿了。我想,这么文艺的问题,我还是闭嘴吧。
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发布于:2017-04-16 13:02
谢谢楼主辛苦
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