金杯
管理员-厄尔尼诺
管理员-厄尔尼诺
  • 注册日期2010-01-03
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝259
  • 关注146
  • 发帖数21948
  • 来自
阅读:2561回复:13

[翻译请求]【雪迷必看】Finally...how do we calculate snow ratios? (关于积雪效率决定因素的科普文)

楼主#
更多 发布于:2015-01-24 20:07
http://lukemweather.blogspot.com/2010/12/finallyhow-do-we-calculate-snow-ratios.html
此资源由 @自愚自乐 发现,作者Luke Madaus
Thursday, December 23, 2010

Finally...how do we calculate snow ratios?

 A while ago I said that I would look into how we calculate snow ratios, as these have big impacts on determining the amount of snowfall to expect.  Today I'm finally getting around to looking at that particular subject....

 First, what is a snow ratio?  Technically, it's the ratio of inches of snow on the ground to the liquid water content that the snow contains.  For example, if you had ten inches of snow on the ground, then all of it melted and you were left with one inch of water, that would be a 10:1 snow ratio.  Once the snow falls, it's easy to measure snow ratio (once you correct for the surface area from which you gathered the snow).  However, it's difficult to develop a purely physical basis for calculating snow ratios.  Most of our current knowledge on the subject comes from empirical test results.  The basic pattern of thinking behind snow ratios is this:

    1.How deep the snow on the ground becomes depends on the shape and size of the ice crystals in it.  Big, fluffy snowflake crystals (called "dendrites") tend to stack up deeper than small, compressed ice needles or plates.  It's simply a factor of their geometry.

    2.It has long been established that different types of snow crystals form at different temperatures.  Therefore it should be possible to relate snow crystal type to the temperature at which it forms and consequently relate the snow ratio to the temperature at which the snow crystals are forming.

 With this in mind, lots of empirical studies were done and the result was a chart that looks like this:

 

图片:snowratio1.png


Fig 1-  Empirical graph relating snow ratios to temperature of snow crystal source region.  Graph from a powerpoint presentation by Daniel Cobb.




 This handy little graph forms the basis for almost all of our snowfall forecasting techniques.  A few things to note from this graph:

    1.If we take the average of all those snow ratios, it works out to be around 10:1.  This is why we typically assume a 10:1 snow ratio when we want to make quick calculations--it splits the difference and shouldn't be that far off...usually.

    2.Note that the peak of the graph is between -12 degrees Celsius and -18 degrees Celsius.  Not coincidentally, this is the region of the most rapid dendrite snow crystal growth (also known as the "dendritic growth zone").  Remember that big, fluffy dendrites tend to make deeper snow for a given water content.  Therefore it's no coincidence that the temperatures that coincide with the highest snow ratios are also the temperatures where dendrite growth is the strongest.

 Just for a refresher, here's a diagram I randomly found on the web (actually, according to the website I took it from, adapted from a 1954 book by Ukichiro Nakaya called Snow Crystals, Natural and Artificial) that relates the crystal type to the temperature of formation.

图片:snowratio2.jpg


Fig 2 -- Diagram relating the snow crystal type to the temperature of formation.  Adapted from Snow Crystals, Natural and Artificial by Ukichiro Nakaya (1954).  Found on this website.




 And once again we see above that dendrites are favored in the temperature region of maximum snow ratios.  Why is snow crystal growth so rapid in this temperature region?  As seen in the line on the graph above, this temperature region is also where the saturation vapor pressure with respect to ice is the most different (lower) than the saturation vapor pressure with respect to liquid water.  This means that ice crystals will form preferentially to liquid water droplets, greatly speeding ice crystal growth.

 So we see that the snow ratio graph above (in figure 1) makes a lot of sense.  The next question is--what temperature are we going to assume for the snow ratio?  There are two main methods for looking at this (if we're only looking at temperature with no other information):

    1.One basic way is to just use the temperature at the surface as the temperature to look up the snow ratio on the chart above.  Since surface temperature is well-represented in both models and observations, it's commonly available and can perhaps provide a more refined measurement than simply guessing at a 10:1 ratio.  However, it's clear that most of our snow crystals are not forming right before the surface--they're forming much higher.  I suppose if there's a deep isothermal layer from the surface to, say, 900mb, perhaps this might be better.  But in general, this won't be very accurate.

    2.Another temperature that can be used is the maximum temperature in the profile.  The thought is that any ice crystals forming above the maximum temperature will have to fall through the zone of maximum temperature and this might cause some melting or changing of crystal habit.  However, below that level, the ice crystals are "frozen" in what ever state they left the warmest layer, and therefore whatever reaches the surface should reflect the properties of that warmest layer.  This provides a distinct improvement over just using the surface temperature, as this temperature is probably closer to the temperature at which snow would form.  Of course, sometimes the surface temperature IS the max temperature in the profile, so then both temperatures would be the same.

 Here's an example of a model snow sounding annotated with both of these temperatures.

图片:snowratio3.gif


Fig 3 -- GFS 24-hour forecast sounding for KRFD at 12Z, Dec. 24, 2010.




 In the above sounding, note that we are saturated or nearly saturated up to around 500 mb--lots of moisture there.  We're also saturated between -12 to -18 degrees Celsius (where the temperature profile is highlighted in yellow), so there are probably dendrites forming.  However, the max-temp-in-profile theory assumes that the crystals will have properties as if they formed around -5.4 degrees Celsius.  From our chart above, this is about a 9:1 snow ratio.  The surface temperature isn't that much colder at -6.2 degrees Celsius.  This results in a snow ratio of about the same--9:1 or 10:1.

 However, this doesn't necessarily reflect everything that's going on in the atmosphere.  It has been shown in many studies that areas of intense snow crystal growth and formation can be collocated with the areas of maximum vertical velocity (when the air is saturated).  If there is a lot of vertical motion within a saturated environment, lots of moisture is moving through that particular region and as a result lots of snow crystals can grow there.  This has given rise to the well-known "cross-hairs" technique for looking for areas of particularly heavy snowfall.  (Still looking for a good graphic that shows that clearly...).  If we are saturated, areas of greater upward vertical velocity tend to produce more snow crystals than areas with weaker upward vertical velocity.

 This can be applied to give two more methods for getting snow ratios:

 One way to choose the temperature at which most of our snow crystals are forming is to find the maximum vertical velocity within the saturated parts of the sounding.  Then, we find the temperature at that level.  Since snow crystal formation is enhanced in areas of high vertical velocity, we'll assume that we'll see more crystals from this particular level than any other level.  Therefore the temperature at this level should define the geometry of a good portion of our snow crystals.


图片:snowratio4.png


Fig  4 -- 25 hour NAM forecast for KRFD at 13Z, Dec. 24, 2010.  Vertical velocity is shown in white with "zero" vertical velocity shown as the white vertical dotted line.





 In the example profile above (from about the same time as the GFS model image in figure 3--the NAM has better vertical velocities) we see that the peak vertical velocity occurs at around 828mb.  We are near saturation (particularly with respect to ice) and the temperature is -8 degrees Celsius at this level.  Using our chart above, this would translate to a snow ratio of about 10:1.

 Of course, this is just choosing one level and assuming that the majority of our snow crystals will come from this level of maximum upward vertical velocity.  But we know that snow crystals are forming above and below that layer.  We also know that since we're below freezing in our profile, there's a very good chance that all the crystals are managing to fall through somehow.  So can we improve upon our forecast of snow ratio even more by taking into account snow crystals forming at other levels?

 Daniel Cobb, when he worked at the Caribou WFO of the National Weather Service, developed an algorithm to do just that based on model data. This algorithm, now commonly called the COBB algorithm or the Caribou method, calculates a weighted average of snow ratios at all levels of model output where snow crystals could form (i.e., it's cold enough and the air is saturated, etc...).  The weighting depends on the vertical velocity--you sum all of the vertical velocities at each level of the model where there could be snow crystal growth and then divide each level's vertical velocity by that total to get the "weight" to apply to the snow ratio at that level.  In this way, the "crosshairs" technique described above can be expanded to all levels where snow crystals can be growing--including those layers where it's saturated in the dendritic growth zone.  As such, this technique (a form of which is used in Bufkit's "zone omega" snow ratio option) usually gives higher estimates of the snow ratio than the other techniques.  But often, it can be more accurate...

 So there we have a summary of several techniques that can be used to obtain snow ratios.  All are based upon that critical graph in figure 1--that temperature-snow-ratio relation is the key to our snowfall forecasting.  To find a forecast snow depth?  Simply multiply the quantitative liquid precipitation forecast by the snow ratio.  For instance, if the model is telling you that .25 in. of liquid precipitation is expected and you have a snow ratio calculated at 10:1, to find the snow depth take .25 x 10 = 2.5 inches of snow.  It's that simple.


 There are lots of excellent resources online for learning more about snow ratios.  For example, Daniel Cobb has a
powerpoint presentation where he very nicely outlines the basic COBB algorithm--it can be found at:
http://cstar.cestm.albany.edu/nrow/NROW6/Cobb.ppt

 The Warning Decision Training Branch also has a good teaching presentation as part of their AWOC winter weather course on snow ratios.   It goes into far more detail than I do here.This presentation is available at:
http://www.wdtb.noaa.gov/courses/winterawoc/IC6/lesson5/part1/player.html

 Of course, in closing, many of our advanced models (like WRF) can forecast snow amount explicitly if they have a microphysics scheme that computes ice crystal concentration.  So in the future we may have models  explicitly try to determine snowfall amounts and use those instead of snow ratios.  But I still think snow ratios are rather fun...

图片:snowratio5.gif


Fig 5 -- Calculated 24-hour snowfall accumulations from the UW-WRF model at 12Z, Dec. 24, 2010.
Posted by  Luke Madaus    at 3:27 PM
[金杯于2015-01-24 20:52编辑了帖子]
喜欢5 评分0
  外东北——严寒,多雪,还有最赞的海洋性季风气候                                        海淀公园2009-2010冬:总降雪80mm,落雪80cm,积雪45天,雪深30cm(1/3,雪中-6~-9℃+东风3-4级),低温-20.2℃(1/6)      卡罗琳—菲律宾海—奄美—东海—宫古—冲绳—东海—济州—黑山岛—黄海—石岛—蓬莱—渤海—天津—燕京—下花园—闪电河        ※台风岛※ http://bbs.typhoon.gov.cn/read.php?tid=66876                                       (燕京三绝:空气质量极端性 温带雨季集中度 过境台风日龄~ 2015/6/11草原蓝视程180KM+ 2013/3/20晴雪满枝 2016/5/23双彩虹)
天一色
超强台风
超强台风
  • 注册日期2012-01-12
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝178
  • 关注51
  • 发帖数14475
  • 来自
1楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 09:56
我就大致概括一下文章的重点内容吧:
1. 积雪能力取决于降雪中冰晶的种类,某些冰晶更容易积雪;
2. 于是乎,积雪能力可能和降雪形成层温度有关,实证研究证明了这一点;
3. 积雪比和降雪形成层温度呈现单峰抛物线关系,平均而言为10:1,-15度左右最有利;
4. 为什么呢?因为不同温度下生成的冰晶种类不同,-15度左右生成的冰晶种类最有利于积雪;
5. 所以,我们可以通过判断降雪形成层的温度来预测积雪能力,主要方法有以下两种;
6. 一种是看近地面温度,或者900hPa温度,近似作为降雪形成层温度;
7. 更科学的一种是看高空到地面所有层面温度的最大值,有时这个温度就是近地面温度;
8. 实际中,我们还需要通过风场分布确定降雪形成最快的地方,即寻找饱和层范围内垂直速度最大的层面;
9. 然而,并不是所有的雪都在这一层面形成,某人设计COBB算法来计算所有层面加权平均的积雪能力。
[天一色于2015-01-28 09:58编辑了帖子]
梦想是开在悬崖上的花 //梦回1961-1990:洛阳9站平均春141.6,夏322.0,秋187.7,冬34.1,年685.4,偃师524.0~栾川851.2
回复(0) 喜欢(0)     评分
天一色
超强台风
超强台风
  • 注册日期2012-01-12
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝178
  • 关注51
  • 发帖数14475
  • 来自
2楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 10:04
不过对于此文,我还是有不理解的地方,如果降雪形成层气温足够低,但近地面气温非常高,雪花边下边化怎么办?
梦想是开在悬崖上的花 //梦回1961-1990:洛阳9站平均春141.6,夏322.0,秋187.7,冬34.1,年685.4,偃师524.0~栾川851.2
回复(2) 喜欢(0)     评分
金杯
管理员-厄尔尼诺
管理员-厄尔尼诺
  • 注册日期2010-01-03
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝259
  • 关注146
  • 发帖数21948
  • 来自
3楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 12:26
天一色锛毑还杂诖宋模一故怯胁焕斫獾牡胤剑绻笛┬纬刹闫伦愎坏停孛嫫路浅8撸┗ū呦卤呋趺窗欤鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
此文当然是只考虑理想状态,风吹雪、风影响结晶、近地面高温化雪、重力压雪、白天辐射消雪、前期地面积水等都是干扰因素,另外湿雪时容易雪花碰并造成大雪花的假象,实际冰晶并不大。

我用来验证北京的中雪以上降雪还是非常靠谱的。但绝对不能看近地面,一般根据水汽层面以看850为主,有时看700,850-700都很好为最佳。
[金杯于2015-01-28 12:33编辑了帖子]
  外东北——严寒,多雪,还有最赞的海洋性季风气候                                        海淀公园2009-2010冬:总降雪80mm,落雪80cm,积雪45天,雪深30cm(1/3,雪中-6~-9℃+东风3-4级),低温-20.2℃(1/6)      卡罗琳—菲律宾海—奄美—东海—宫古—冲绳—东海—济州—黑山岛—黄海—石岛—蓬莱—渤海—天津—燕京—下花园—闪电河        ※台风岛※ http://bbs.typhoon.gov.cn/read.php?tid=66876                                       (燕京三绝:空气质量极端性 温带雨季集中度 过境台风日龄~ 2015/6/11草原蓝视程180KM+ 2013/3/20晴雪满枝 2016/5/23双彩虹)
回复(0) 喜欢(0)     评分
金杯
管理员-厄尔尼诺
管理员-厄尔尼诺
  • 注册日期2010-01-03
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝259
  • 关注146
  • 发帖数21948
  • 来自
4楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 12:45
北京的一些检验

 
 
 
 
   日期    地点    纯雪量    雪深    积雪比    850    700    地面    水汽层    
   20090219    南郊    5.4    4    0.7    
   
   
   
   
   20091101    南郊    12    5    0.4    
   
   
   
   
   海淀    17    ≈9    0.5    
   
   
   
   
   20091110    南郊    5    3    0.6    
   
   
   
   
   海淀    18.5    17    0.9    
   
   
   
   
   20100103    南郊    10.0    23.4    2.3-16~-17-12~-20    -8    850    
南郊08-20    4.2    18.4    4.2    
   
   
   
   
   海淀    12.4    30.2    2.4    
   
   
   
   
   门头沟    11.6    34.2    3.0    
   
   
   
   
   石景山    15.8    33.5    2.1    
   
   
   
   
   昌平    16.5    37.5    2.3    
   
   
   
   
   怀柔    21.9    37.5*    1.7    
   
   
   
   
   20100308    海淀    7.2    5    0.7    
   
   
   
   
   20100314    海淀    12    8    0.7    
   
   
   
   
   20110213    海淀    5.7    12    2.1    -16-17~-22    -6    850    
   20120318    南郊    8    3    0.4    
   
   
   
   
   海淀    ≈10    4    0.4    
   
   
   
   
   20121104    海淀    ≈15    ≈5    0.3    
   
   
   
   
   延庆    63    48    0.8    
   
   
   
   
   20121214    南郊    5.2    3    0.6    -5    -10   -1~0    
   
   海淀    5.9    3.5    0.6    
   
   
   
   
   20130320    南郊    5    11.3    2.3-9~-12-14~-17  雨→-2
   700    
   北三环*    ≈8    ≈16    2    
   
   
   
   
   20091112    南郊    5.1    3    0.6    
   
   
   
   
   
   海淀    7.8    <3    0.3    
   
   
   
   
[金杯于2015-01-28 13:07编辑了帖子]
  外东北——严寒,多雪,还有最赞的海洋性季风气候                                        海淀公园2009-2010冬:总降雪80mm,落雪80cm,积雪45天,雪深30cm(1/3,雪中-6~-9℃+东风3-4级),低温-20.2℃(1/6)      卡罗琳—菲律宾海—奄美—东海—宫古—冲绳—东海—济州—黑山岛—黄海—石岛—蓬莱—渤海—天津—燕京—下花园—闪电河        ※台风岛※ http://bbs.typhoon.gov.cn/read.php?tid=66876                                       (燕京三绝:空气质量极端性 温带雨季集中度 过境台风日龄~ 2015/6/11草原蓝视程180KM+ 2013/3/20晴雪满枝 2016/5/23双彩虹)
回复(0) 喜欢(1)     评分
ssz102
台风
台风
  • 注册日期2011-01-27
  • 最后登录2016-12-10
  • 粉丝54
  • 关注31
  • 发帖数500
  • 来自
5楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 13:08
天一色锛毑还杂诖宋模一故怯胁焕斫獾牡胤剑绻笛┬纬刹闫伦愎坏停孛嫫路浅8撸┗ū呦卤呋趺窗欤鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
近地面层看你高的什么境界,还有降雪看整层气温分布,如果说整层中700出现暖逆温层,经过多次降雪探空记录来看最后上海市降水就为雨,主要还是接近地面215米和700hpa的相对关系这两个是比较重要在降雪上面必须观察,你可以对比下2012年12月29日降雪探空,2013年2月19日的降雪探空两次过程近地面层1000hpa气温为0.4度~-1度之间,且地面温度有1-2度,那两次都有积雪
回复(1) 喜欢(0)     评分
天一色
超强台风
超强台风
  • 注册日期2012-01-12
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝178
  • 关注51
  • 发帖数14475
  • 来自
6楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 13:18
ssz102锛毥孛娌憧茨愀叩氖裁淳辰纾褂薪笛┛凑闫路植迹绻嫡阒700出现暖逆温层,经过多次降雪探空记录来看最后上海市降水就为雨,主要还是接近地面215米和700hpa的相对关系这两个是比较重要在降雪上面必须观察,你可以对比下2012年12月...鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
所以说嘛,上海高空到地面什么样的配置能下雪,什么样的配置能下冰粒,什么样的配置能下雨夹雪,什么样的配置能下冻雨,这些条件之间关系非常微妙,有些甚至较难解释,依我看应该把近些年每种现象发生时各个层面的探空数据拿来作为训练样本预测将来的降水形式,对于魔都来说非常痛心的却是这样的训练样本样本量太小,可以相信模型会很不稳定@企业号航母
梦想是开在悬崖上的花 //梦回1961-1990:洛阳9站平均春141.6,夏322.0,秋187.7,冬34.1,年685.4,偃师524.0~栾川851.2
回复(3) 喜欢(0)     评分
ssz102
台风
台风
  • 注册日期2011-01-27
  • 最后登录2016-12-10
  • 粉丝54
  • 关注31
  • 发帖数500
  • 来自
7楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 13:39
天一色锛毸运德铮虾8呖盏降孛媸裁囱呐渲媚芟卵裁囱呐渲媚芟卤#裁囱呐渲媚芟掠昙醒裁囱呐渲媚芟露秤辏庑┨跫涔叵捣浅N⒚睿行┥踔两夏呀馐停牢铱从Ω冒呀┠昝恐窒窒蠓⑸备鞲霾忝娴奶娇帐菽美醋魑盗费驹げ饨吹慕邓问...鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
好方法我有过程预报记录探空预报图,gfs预报的探空拿出和现实分析即可
回复(0) 喜欢(0)     评分
企业号航母
论坛版主-副热带高压
论坛版主-副热带高压
  • 注册日期2009-02-07
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝320
  • 关注187
  • 发帖数84086
  • 来自
8楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 19:53
天一色锛毸运德铮虾8呖盏降孛媸裁囱呐渲媚芟卵裁囱呐渲媚芟卤#裁囱呐渲媚芟掠昙醒裁囱呐渲媚芟露秤辏庑┨跫涔叵捣浅N⒚睿行┥踔两夏呀馐停牢铱从Ω冒呀┠昝恐窒窒蠓⑸备鞲霾忝娴奶娇帐菽美醋魑盗费驹げ饨吹慕邓问...鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
魔都还有近地面的城市气候干扰更加难以判断
有兀自生死的血色纱 仍轻柔,晕染着,你的发。 惯看每缕人间的烟花, 湮灭成,盈满双眼的沙。 流年中的石桥渐风化, 你目送,那痴缠,与无瑕。 黯淡或是天真的目光, 千万遍,勾勒你的伤疤。 你曾痴狂,你曾挣扎, 都不过是,故纸堆中的一划。 一寸流光,一寸黄粱, 千年描画。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 一段纷繁遥远的韶华, 凝铸成,指下血,心口砂。 那些来去匆匆的脸庞, 从未曾,知晓你的过往。 当这岁月,试图麻木你脸颊。 一声叹惋,一声唾骂, 无需作答。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 千年后你见证多少生死离别, 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 黄泉外仍有明月, 曾洒落在你眸间。 而如今无垠血色千万次开谢, 昏沉雾霭中有萤火杳杳明灭。 你将自己囚禁于人世边沿, 只为祭奠当年的无悔无怨。 这里是所有疲惫遗憾的终点, 每个旅人的悲伤都与你重叠, 你看过无数双死灰般的眼, 才将那些爱恨埋入这黄泉永夜。 有容颜,铭刻于你的骨血, 此生已无从忘却。
回复(0) 喜欢(0)     评分
企业号航母
论坛版主-副热带高压
论坛版主-副热带高压
  • 注册日期2009-02-07
  • 最后登录2017-05-23
  • 粉丝320
  • 关注187
  • 发帖数84086
  • 来自
9楼#
发布于:2015-01-28 19:57
天一色锛毸运德铮虾8呖盏降孛媸裁囱呐渲媚芟卵裁囱呐渲媚芟卤#裁囱呐渲媚芟掠昙醒裁囱呐渲媚芟露秤辏庑┨跫涔叵捣浅N⒚睿行┥踔两夏呀馐停牢铱从Ω冒呀┠昝恐窒窒蠓⑸备鞲霾忝娴奶娇帐菽美醋魑盗费驹げ饨吹慕邓问...鍥炲埌鍘熷笘
这方面10年2月有最经典的例子,2.11 12Z 1000 -1.1, 850 -7.1,925 -6.3,但700高达0.8,中空有暖层因此尽管850低于-5近地面也破零但只能下冰粒
有兀自生死的血色纱 仍轻柔,晕染着,你的发。 惯看每缕人间的烟花, 湮灭成,盈满双眼的沙。 流年中的石桥渐风化, 你目送,那痴缠,与无瑕。 黯淡或是天真的目光, 千万遍,勾勒你的伤疤。 你曾痴狂,你曾挣扎, 都不过是,故纸堆中的一划。 一寸流光,一寸黄粱, 千年描画。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 一段纷繁遥远的韶华, 凝铸成,指下血,心口砂。 那些来去匆匆的脸庞, 从未曾,知晓你的过往。 当这岁月,试图麻木你脸颊。 一声叹惋,一声唾骂, 无需作答。 千年前你曾跪向黄昏中的雪, 祈求将彻骨相思夭折成决绝。 泪水模糊千山上皎皎明月, 而今恍惚隔世后无缘再见。 千年后你见证多少生死离别, 将每双熟悉的眼洗涤得无邪。 他曾为某人某事抛下一切, 只因最后有你把所有绝望终结。 黄泉外仍有明月, 曾洒落在你眸间。 而如今无垠血色千万次开谢, 昏沉雾霭中有萤火杳杳明灭。 你将自己囚禁于人世边沿, 只为祭奠当年的无悔无怨。 这里是所有疲惫遗憾的终点, 每个旅人的悲伤都与你重叠, 你看过无数双死灰般的眼, 才将那些爱恨埋入这黄泉永夜。 有容颜,铭刻于你的骨血, 此生已无从忘却。
回复(1) 喜欢(0)     评分
上一页
游客

返回顶部